What is antibiotic resistance?


Antibiotic resistance occurs when antibiotics are no longer effective against infections. Antibiotic resistance can affect anyone, of any age, in any country (World Health Organization, 2021).

Self-medicating with antibiotics or overusing/misusing them, leads to the rapid spread of antibiotic resistance and poses high health risks to humans (Ben et al., 2018).

Globally, over 700,000 deaths per year are attributed to antibiotic resistance (Tadesse et al., 2017).%20and%20trimethoprim,IQR%200%25%2D45.0%25).) This number is estimated to increase to approximately 10 million deaths by the year 2050 (Tadesse et al., 2017).%20and%20trimethoprim,IQR%200%25%2D45.0%25).) The earlier given statistics is an indication of antibiotic resistance occurrence and persistence as a global threat to human, animal, and environmental health (Aslam et al., 2018),

Antibiotic resistance is recognized as one of the Global Health challenges of the 21st century by major regulatory, economic and political bodies, like the International Monetary Fund, World Health Organization, and World Bank (Hernando-Amado et al., 2019).

Causes of antibiotic resistance include:

  1. Uncontrolled over-the-counter antibiotic sales
  2. Increased international travel
  3. Poor sanitation/hygiene
  4. Release of non-metabolized antibiotics or their residues into the environment through manure/feces (Aslam et al., 2018).
  5. Inadequate infection/disease prevention and control in healthcare facilities and farms
  6. Poor access to quality, affordable medicines, vaccines, and diagnostics
  7. Little or no awareness and knowledge of antimicrobial resistance
  8. Lack of enforcement of legislation (WHO, 2021).

Preventive tips for antibiotics resistance

  1. Controlling self antibiotics use
  2. Limiting access to over-the-counter sold antibiotics
  3. Improving sanitation and hygienic practices to prevent the occurrence and recurrence of infections
  4. Completing the recommended antibiotics dosage.

Did you find this article interesting?

Do you have any tips for preventing antibiotic resistance? Please share with us in the comment section.


Quite an interesting topic. Thank you.
I think in this part of the world, awareness on antibiotic resistance would lead to behavioural changes, as many people are ignorant of the effects.


Could you explain more on the interactions between antibiotic resistance and environmental health? Thank you.

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Yes, the article is quite interesting

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Thank you!

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Nice article, thank you Nikky.